THE TOPOGRAPHICAL CHANGES CREATED BY THE LANDSCAPE DESIGN ACTIVITIES. CASE STUDY OF THE CZERNIN PARKS, BOHEMIA
Landscape is considered a specific type of heritage, and cultural landscapes provide an interface between nature and culture, the tangible and intangible, and biological and cultural diversity. They represent a closely woven network of relationships and the essence of cultural and personal identity. The most valuable cultural landscapes are designed landscapes or landscape parks. This paper focuses on landscaping activities associated with park foundation and management, especially those involving terrain changes and the remodeling of the natural topography. Terrain changes in landscape parks are typically meant to be hidden from viewers and to mimic natural lines and shapes. The paper focuses on determining to what degree the natural topography was used and changed, as well as what impact it had on the form and creation of the parks. Terrain changes should differ according to the natural topography, the landscape design activities, and contemporary landscape trends. Archival sources, including written documents, maps, and pictures, were considered viable sources. Four model areas were chosen for a detailed analysis of landscaping and design activities and their impact on the terrain: landscape parks around manor houses in Krásný Dvůr, Jemčina, Petrohrad, and Chudenice.